This is the expanded version of the Endnotes promised in the book edition.
I relied heavily on primary sources for my research. Due to space constraints, the Endnotes in the book generally identified only the title of primary source documents that are available online. This version identifies the URL or the online library. I made particular use of two superb online libraries: Alexander Street’s Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600 – 2000 (abbreviated below as WSM) and Gale Primary Sources’ Nineteenth Century Collections (relied on in particular for The Woman’s Journal). The version also provides the title of newspaper articles.
Paragraphs titled Expanded provides additional relevant information that due to space constraints, I was unable to include in the text of the book. These are a work in progress.
Abbreviations used in Endnotes:
Globe: The Boston Globe
HWS: History of Woman Suffrage
NYT: The New York Times
WJ: The Woman’s Journal
WRC-SL: Women’s Rights Collection, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University
SSC-SC: Sophia Smith Collection of Women’s History, Smith College.
1. I use the term woman suffrage rather than women’s suffrage because that is how the participants referred to their movement. A suffragist advocated extending the franchise to women. A suffragette was a militant British suffragist; suffragettes adopted this moniker after critics used it to mock them. A suffrage opponent was known as a remonstrant or anti-suffragist. Suffragists referred to sex discrimination, and I will generally use that term rather than gender discrimination.
2. Angelina Grimke, Letter XII to Catharine Beecher. Boston: Isaac Knapp, 1838. Written in West Boylston MA Oct 2 1837 and first published in the Liberator.
3. Kathryn Kish Sklar, Women’s Rights Emerges within the Antislavery Movement (Boston; New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s 2000), 160.
1. Sklar, Women’s Rights, 117 (Angelina Grimké to Jane Smith, July 25, 1837).
2. In a letter dated March 31, 1776, Abigail Adams famously urged her husband, John Adams, to “remember the ladies” in the Code of Laws he and other Patriots would write for the new nation. Although her letter did not launch a movement, it has and continues to inspire women.
3. Barbara F. Berenson, Boston and the Civil War: Hub of the Second Revolution (Charleston, SC: The History Press 2014), 31.
4. Mark Perry, ed., Sarah Grimké and Angelina Grimké: On Slavery and Abolitionism, Essays and Letters (New York: Penguin, 2015), 123. Angelina Grimké to William Lloyd Garrison, August 30, 1865.
5. Maria Stewart, one known exception, is discussed below. In 1828, Frances Wright, a radical Scottish-born social reformer, became the first woman to publicly lecture in the United States.
6. Proceedings, Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women Held in the City of New York, May 1837. WSM.
7. Sklar, Women’s Rights, 110–12 (Angelina Grimké to Jane Smith, May 29, 1837).
8. Ibid., 112–14 (Maria Weston Chapman to New England Anti-Slavery Societies, June 7, 1837).
9. Ibid., 115–16 (Angelina Grimké to Jane Smith, June 1837).
10. Pastoral Letter of the General Association of Congregational Ministers of Massachusetts, June 27, 1837. http://users.wfu.edu/zulick/340/pastoralletter.html
11. Berenson, Boston and the Civil War, 98.
12. Sklar, Women’s Rights, 108 (Catharine Beecher, “Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism, with Reference to the Duty of American Females,” 1837).
13. Sarah Grimké, Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women, Addressed to Mary S. Parker, President of the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society. https://archive.org/stream/lettersonequalit00grimrich/lettersonequalit00grimrich_djvu.txt
14. Angelina Grimké, Letters to Catharine E. Beecher, in reply to An Essay of Slavery and Abolitionism. http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/abolitn/abesaegb5t.html
15. Gilbert H. Barnes, and Dwight L. Dumond, Letters of Weld, Grimke, and Grimke, 1822–1844 (Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association, 1934), 425–32. Theodore Weld to Angelina Grimké, August 15, 1837.
16. Ibid. Angelina Grimké’s reply to Weld, August 20, 1837.
17. Perry, Sarah Grimké and Angelina Grimké, 329–31.
18. Angelina Grimké, Speech at Pennsylvania Hall. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2939t.html
19. Sklar, Women’s Rights, 160–61 (Angelina Grimké to Anne Warren Weston, July 15, 1838).
1. Dorothy Sterling, Ahead of Her Time: Abby Kelley and the Politics of Antislavery (New York: Norton, 1991), 53–54.
Expanded: In 1840, in a move that was controversial even within the radical abolitionist community, Garrison appointed Kelley to serve on the previously all-male business committee of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He also appointed Chapman, Child, and Mott to the Executive Committee. This, coupled with Garrison’s refusal to engage in electoral politics, led to a split within the anti-slavery society. The Garrisonian wing was centered in Boston; his opponents founded the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, which was based in New York.
2. Ibid., 231.
3. Sally G. McMillen, Lucy Stone: An Unapologetic Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 65.
4. Samuel J. May, The Rights and Condition of Women (1845). http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/nawbib:@field(NUMBER+@band(rbnawsa+n2749
5. Andrea Moore Kerr, Lucy Stone: Speaking Out for Equality (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992), 48, 196.
Expanded: For biographical information about Stone’s life, I also consulted Joelle Million, Woman’s Voice, Woman’s Place: Lucy Stone and the Birth of the Woman’s Rights Movement, NY: Praeger, 2003.
6. Lucy Stone Papers, Folder 1053, WRC-SL.
7. Kerr, Lucy Stone, 52.
8. Sklar, Women’s Rights, 169.
9. As will be discussed in chapter 4, contemporaneous evidence shows that the claim that Mott and Stanton had developed the idea for a women’s rights convention when they met in London in 1840 was created years later.
10. See Lawrence Friedman, History of American Law, 3rd ed. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 146.
11. Methodist and Baptist preachers were among the leaders of the Great Awakening.
12. Report of the Woman’s Rights Convention Held at Seneca Falls, July 1848. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trr040.html.
13. Frederick Douglass, remarks in North Star. https://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/frederick-douglass.htm
14. Lisa Tetrault, The Myth of Seneca Falls: Memory and the Women’s Suffrage Movement, 1848–1898 (Chapel Hill: University North Carolina, 2014), 13.
15. A recent local convention in Salem, Ohio, may also have contributed to the decision to plan a national convention.
Expanded: Davis would serve as president of the National Woman’s Rights Central Committee from 1850 – 1858. She founded a woman’s magazine, the Una, which was published between 1853 and 1855.
16. McMillen, Lucy Stone, 90.
Expanded: Unlike the Grimkés, Fuller did not ground her assertions in an interpretation of the Bible. Her book is generally acknowledged as the first secular American work of feminist theory.
17. Wherever possible, I have relied on the Proceedings of the Woman’s Rights Convention, Held at Worcester, October 23 and 24, 1850. I have supplemented the official Proceedings with newspaper reports that include summaries of speeches not included in the Proceedings, including those of Sojourner Truth and Ernestine Rose. For those, I relied on John F. McClymer, This High and Holy Moment: The First National Woman’s Rights Convention, Worcester, 1850 (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 140, 143–44, 148–51 and the website of the Worcester Women’s History Project.
18. Sojourner Truth, Ain’t I a Woman. There are differing accounts of her remarks.
Expanded: Truth’s speech was first published by Marius Robinson in a Ohio anti-slavery newspaper in 1851. This version is in standard English. The more widely known version, with the repeated “Ain’t I a woman” refrain, dates from 1863. Nell Irvin Painter, Truth’s biographer, shares the conclusion of numerous other scholars that the famous refrain was the later invention of Frances Dana Barker Gage. Painter, 171.
19. See MassMoments, First National Woman’s Rights Convention Ends in Worcester, October 24, 1840.
Expanded: This convention also gained European attention. Harriet Taylor Mill, the wife of philosopher John Stuart Mill, wrote an essay in support of woman suffrage in which she praised the American women who had held the world’s first national women’s rights convention.
20. Proceedings of the Woman’s Rights Convention, Held at Worcester, October 15 and 16, 1851. WSM
Expanded: Bloomer was the publisher of the nation’s first women’s newspapers, the Lily (1849-1853), which began by advocating temperance but came to support a broad array of women’s rights.
21. McMillen, Lucy Stone, 79
Expanded: In her remarks in Cincinnati, Lucy Stone reiterated her commitment to raise the consciousness of women and make them aware of their subordinate status. “It shall be,” she announced, “the business of my life to deepen this disappointment in every women’s heart until she bows down to it no longer.” WSM.
22. The primary motivation for the convention was a desire by some to reconsider how legislators were apportioned among cities and towns.
23. McMillen, Lucy Stone, 97–98.
24. Ibid., 109–10. Marriage Protest, http://theliberatorfiles.com/marriage-of-lucy-stone-and-protest/
25. Lucy Stone’s letter to the Tax Collector, December 18, 1858. http://essexuu.org/stoneltr.html
26. McMillen, Lucy Stone, 111.
27. HWS, 721–22; Kerr, Lucy Stone, 111–12.
1. Berenson, Boston and the Civil War, 98
2. Proceedings of the National Convention of Colored Men, Held in Syracuse, October 4–7, 1864. www.coloredconventions.org.
3. Meeting of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, May 1865. Frederick Douglass, “What the Black Man Wants?” http://rbscp.lib.rochester.edu/2946
5. That section would also prohibit the states from abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens; depriving any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; and denying any person the equal protection of the laws.
6. Petition for Universal Suffrage, January 29, 1866. http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/petuniv.html.
7. Proceedings of the Eleventh National Woman’s Rights Convention, New York, May 10, 1866. WSM
8. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, We Are All Bound Up Together, 1866. http://www.blackpast.org/1866-frances-ellen-watkins-harper-we-are-all-bound-together-0
9. Patricia G. Holland, “George Francis Train and the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1867–70,” Books at Iowa 46 (1987): 8.
10. New York Herald, December 15, 1867; Faye E. Dudden, Fighting Chance: The Struggle over Woman Suffrage and Black Suffrage in Reconstruction America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 140–45.
Expanded: Black suffrage was supported by 10,483 voters and woman suffrage by 9070 voters.
11. Revolution, January 8, 1868. http://www.paperlessarchives.com/susan-b-anthony-the-revolution.html
12. Dudden, Fighting Chance, 86, 104–7.
Expanded: The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court also denied funds to the woman suffrage movement. Abolitionist Francis Jackson’s will included bequests to support women’s rights, but in response to a lawsuit brought by an heir, the court ruled that the women’s rights bequest could not be sustained as a charity because the bequest aimed “directly and exclusively to change the laws . . .[which is not] a charitable use.” The court voided that provision of the will. See Edmund Jackson v. Wendell Phillips, 96 Mass. 539 (1867). https://law.justia.com/cases/massachusetts/supreme-court/volumes/96/96mass539.html
13. Ibid., 45, 150.
14. Henry Blackwell, What the South Can Do; McMillen, Lucy Stone, 166.
15. Revolution, July 9, 1868; October 1, 1868.
16. The Boston Woman’s Rights Convention, January 1869. http://womenwriters.digitalscholarship.emory.edu/advocacy/content.php?level=div&id=advocate1_128&document=advocate1
Expanded: Howe would preside over NEWSA until 1877, followed by Stone until her death in 1893. Howe would again preside until she died in 1910, followed by Alice Stone Blackwell.
17. Revolution, December 24, 1868; February 4, 1869.
18. Dudden, Fighting Chance, 3. See also Alice F. Berenson, “Torn Asunder: The Woman Suffrage Movement Divides Over the Primacy of Black or Woman Suffrage,” unpublished manuscript, 2011.
19. II HWS 379–83.
20. Ibid., 383–84.
21. Dudden, Fighting Chance, 180.
22. Nell Painter, Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol (New York: W.W. Norton, 1996), 23. Truth participated, however, in NWSA’s 1872 voting campaign.
Expanded: Neither Sojourner Truth nor Frances Harper attended the founding AWSA convention, but both supported the Fifteenth Amendment. Harper addressed AWSA conventions in 1873 and 1875. Truth sought to avoid entanglement in the rivalry between the two organizations. But Nell Irvin Painter, who has written the leading biography of Truth, says that a choice was unavoidable, and “Truth came finally to rest with the AWSA.” She did, however, continue to have an association with Anthony.
23. Constitution of the American Woman Suffrage Association. https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbnawsa.n8291/?st=gallery
24. WJ, January 8, 1870, Henry B. Blackwell, “Political Organization.”
25. Ibid., January 8, 1870, Masthead; January 7, 1871, Lucy Stone, “Anniversary of our Birthday.”
26. Ibid., January 7, 1871, Lucy Stone, “Anniversary of our Birthday.”
1. George Hoar, Woman Suffrage: Essential to the True Republic (Boston: American Woman Suffrage Association, 1873). http://lewissuffragecollection.omeka.net/items/show/909
2. Barbara Weltner, “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820–1860” American Quarterly (1966): 151.
3. Bradwell v. State of Illinois, 83 U.S. 130 (1872)(Bradley, J., concurring).
4. Stephen Jay Gould, The Panda’s Thumb. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1980), 152.
Expanded: Dr. Edward H. Clarke Sex in Education, 38-39, 62-63 (1873). http://greenfield.brynmawr.edu/items/show/2832.
5. Paul Quigley, “The Birth of Thanksgiving,” New York Times, November 28, 2013.
6. Victoria Woodhull, Speech in Steinway Hall, November 20, 1871. . http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/naw:@field+(SOURCE+@band(rbnawsa+n8216)):@@$REF$
7. Andrea Kerr, “White Women’s Rights, Black Men’s Wrongs,” in Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement (Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press, 1995), 74–77.
Expanded: In November 1868, the month when Lucy Stone attempted to vote in Roseville, New Jersey, 172 women in Vineland, New Jersey, voted. They provided their own ballots and ballot box; their votes were not counted. Activists made some additional attempts during the next several years, including in a local election in Hyde Park, Massachusetts, in 1870. Angelina Grimké Weld, Sarah Grimké, and Theodore Weld had moved to Hyde Park following the Civil War. On March 7, 1870, approximately 50 women, including the Grimké sisters, showed up to vote in a local election. Their ballots were collected in a separate box but were not counted. See “Women who Voted, 1868 to 1873, Sorted Chronologically,” The Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Papers Project.
http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/resources/voters.html See also H.C. Moore, “The Election is Over, and the Women, Fifty in Number, Have Cast Their Ballot, Too,” WJ, March 12, 1870.
Expanded: The Constitution requires the president to be at least 35 upon assuming office. Article Two, Section 1.The Equal Rights Party named Frederick Douglass as Woodhull’s running mate, but he never publicly acknowledged his nomination.
The Supreme Court held that the 14th Amendment did not enfranchise women in Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1875). The NWSA then renewed its efforts to persuade Congress to enact a new federal amendment to enfranchise women. In 1878, Senator Aaron Sargent, a Republican from California, introduced a woman suffrage amendment, but it made no headway.
8. WJ, June 11, 1881; Tetrault, Myth of Seneca Falls, 116.
9. Three additional volumes of History of Woman Suffrage were later published, with Ida Husted Harper as lead editor. Volume 4 was published in 1902; volumes 5 and 6 were published in 1922, long after the deaths of Anthony and Stanton.
10. Tetrault, Myth of Seneca Falls, 122.
11. WJ, June 11, 1881, Lucy Stone, “The History of Woman Suffrage.” See also WJ October 30,1880, Stone, “The Thirtieth Anniversary”; WJ February 14,1880, “Worcester Convention."
12. See, for example, Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959, rev. 1996). Flexner, in turn, influenced many subsequent historians.
Expanded: Flexner criticizes the AWSA for undertaking exhausting labors for meager results. She neglects to realize that these labors were essential to laying the groundwork for later success. For a recent example of a major work that largely neglects the AWSA, see Christine Stansell, The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present (NY: Modern Library, 2011). Most recently, Elaine Weiss in The Woman's Hour: The Great Fight to Win the Vote (Viking 2018) suggests that AWSA's focus on persuading individual states to enfranchise women was a lesser goal than NWSA's support for a federal amendment.
13. Flexner, Century of Struggle, 167–68.
14. WJ, May 13, 1871, “Anniversary Meeting of the American Woman Suffrage Association.”
15. Hamand Venet, A Strong Minded Woman: The Life of Mary A. Livermore (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2005), 192.
Expanded: The decline of enthusiasm was reflected in the tepid Republican party platform of 1872, which stated only that the party is “mindful” of its “obligations to the loyal women of America for their noble devotion to the cause of freedom . . .and the honest demand of any class of citizens for additional rights should be treated with respectful consideration.”
16. Lois Bannister Merk, “Massachusetts and the Woman Suffrage Movement,” (PhD diss., Radcliffe College,1961), 373, n. 10, quoting Stone to SK Wildman, November 7, 1871.
17. WJ, June 20, 1874. Stone, “The Real Estate of Wives.”
18. Ibid., January 24, 1874. “Glastonbury Taxes.”
Expanded: Crucial support for this campaign was provided by former abolitionist and suffrage supporter William Bowditch He wrote Taxation of Woman in Massachusetts, which demonstrated the hefty proportion of taxes paid by single and widowed women without a male relative to (plausibly) represent their interests.
19. At the request of Stone, Campbell later wrote detailed descriptions of her work. WJ, July 21, 1894; July 28, 1894; August 4, 1894; August 11, 1894. This section relies on these articles.
Expanded: Legislatures that discussed woman suffrage in the 1870s included Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, South Carolina, California, and Oregon.
20. WJ, January 1, 1876, Stone, “Our Sixth Birthday.”
21. Kerr, Lucy Stone, 194.
22. WJ, December 25, 1886, Stone, “Honor to Our Helpers.”
23. Ibid., See references to new leaflets available: December 31, 1881; April 1, 1882; May 2, 1885; June 23, 1888.
24. Alice Stone Blackwell Papers, Folder 19, WRC-SL.
Expanded: By the end of the 1880s, referenda had been defeated in Michigan, Colorado, and Rhode Island. Women could vote in municipal elections in Kansas. Municipal suffrage had passed one branch of the state legislature in New England states of Vermont, Maine, and Connecticut.
1. WJ, September 28, 1872, “Woman Suffrage a Republican Issue in Massachusetts”; February 5, 1870.
Expanded: Today, the requirement of two consecutive years requires an intervening election. Until 1918, legislators were elected annually (as was the Governor).
2. Ibid., January 22, 1870, “Call for a Massachusetts State Woman Suffrage Convention.”
Expanded: The convention met at Boston’s Horticultural Hall. James Freeman Clarke chaired the Convention; Howe and Stone both delivered addresses, as did Margaret Campbell, Mary Livermore, and Wendell Phillips. Susan B. Anthony attended and congratulated the friends in Massachusetts. Others present included Lydia Maria Child and Louisa May Alcott. Howe would later chair the Executive Committee and James Freeman Clarke assumed the presidency. WJ Feb 5 1870, Henry B. Blackwell, “Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Convention.” Blackwell optimistically noted, “With such weight of character and variety of talent enlisted in its support, woman suffrage in Massachusetts is destined to speedy triumph.”
3. Both admitted men also.
Expanded: The early membership included 118 women and 17 men. The New England Women’s Club in The Woman’s Advocate, Volume 1, No. 1, January 1869. http://womenwriters.library.emory.edu/advocacy/content.php?level=div&id=advocate1_115&document=advocate1. See also Blair at 34.
4. Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850–1920 (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998), 43–44.
Expanded: Putnam would move to Italy in 1885, where her sister Sarah had moved in 1858.
5. Josephine Ruffin, The Crisis, August 1915. https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/workers/civil-rights/crisis/0800-crisis-v10n04-w058.pdf.
6. McMillen, Lucy Stone, 176–77; Harriet Robinson, Massachusetts in the Woman Suffrage Movement (1883), 101–2.
7. WJ, March 30, 1872, Stone, “The Massachusetts Legislature and Woman Suffrage”; Merk, “Massachusetts and the Woman Suffrage Movement,” 43–44; NAWSA, Woman Suffrage Yearbook 1917, 32.
Expanded: Stone wrote, “We have nine votes more this year than last. Still, it is impossible that the friends of woman suffrage should not be disappointed with this result. There is, however, no time to waste in regrets. Every reader of the WJ should cut out the above [list of] names and begin at once to use every effort to see that the men who this year voted against us shall not have the opportunity to do so next year.”
Between 1867 and 1882, approximately 40 to 45 percent of Republicans favored woman suffrage. Merk.
8. In 1870, the Irish Catholic population of Boston was nearly 35 percent. U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850–1990.”
Expanded: George Frisbee Hoar was emblematic of the Republicans who remained committed to social reform. Hoar served in the United States House of Representatives from 1869 – 1877, and in the United States Senate from 1877 – 1904.
9. WJ, January 31, 1874, “Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association.”
Expanded: Stone had previewed this strategy in 1872. See WJ, March 30, 872, Lucy Stone, “The Massachusetts Legislature and Woman Suffrage.”
10. Ibid., September 16, 1876. “Declaration of Principles.”
Expanded: Due to its focus on areas of traditional concern to many women, the WCTU’s membership rapidly eclipsed that of the NWSA and the AWSA. Temperance supporters often lived in rural areas and entered the public realm reluctantly – and only in order to protect their domestic sphere. See Bordin at 3-4.
11. Merk, “Massachusetts and the Woman Suffrage Movement,” 381; WJ, April 24, 1886.
Expanded: The Municipal Suffrage vote improved in 1886 in Massachusetts, as 77 representatives voted in favor while 132 voted No. This was an improvement from the 61Y-155N vote in the House. The Party divide was Republicans: 60Y – 76N; Municipal suffrage was supported by 45% of Republicans and 21 % of Democrats. Henry Blackwell and others opined that the woman suffrage movement should not ally with a party, but should pursue all supporters. “Every move we have ever made in that direction has cost us votes.” WJ, 24 Apr. 1886, Henry B. Blackwell, "Woman Suffrage in Massachusetts."
12. WJ, July 30, 1881, "Temperance Women Ask for Municipal Suffrage."
Expanded: Willard, who was born in 1839, spent her childhood in Ohio and Wisconsin. When she was nineteen, her father moved to Illinois where Willard attended North Western Female College. She became the first president of the Evanston College for Ladies in 1871. In 1874, she attended the WCTU’s founding convention and became corresponding secretary. She was elected president in 1879, and would lead the WCTU until her death in 1898. “If prayer and womanly influence are doing so much as forces for God by indirect methods,” she asked, “how shall it be when that electric force is brought to bear through the battery of the ballot-box along the wires of law.”
See also WJ, November 4, 1876, “Fourth Woman's Congress"; WJ, November 6, 1880, "Temperance Women—Letter from Mrs. Livermore."
13. See generally Ruth Bordin, Woman and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873–1900 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press).
Expanded: The National Brewers’ Association, organized in the 1860s, had since its inception opposed candidates who favored prohibition. In 1881, the National Brewers’ Association announced its opposition to woman suffrage. See also L. Ames Brown. “Suffrage and Prohibition.” The North American Review, Vol. 203, No. 722 (Jan., 1916), pp. 93-100. https://archive.org/details/jstor-25108648.
14. WJ, January 30, 1875, “Annual Meeting of the MWSA.”
Expanded: May was also a cousin of Louisa May Alcott. The other elected women were Lucia Peabody, a teacher; Lucretia Crocker, who had been involved with the New England Freedman’s Aid Association; and Adaline Badger. Ednah Cheney did not run for office but helped to lead the effort.
15. WJ, May 31, 1879, “Eleventh Annual Meeting New England Woman Suffrage Association and New England Suffrage Anniversary.”
Expanded: Stone said that women now had a “foothold.” WJ, April 12, 1879, Stone, “Massachusetts to the Front.” School suffrage passed in the Senate 24-11 and House 129-69.
16. Mass Moments, “Concord Women Cast First Votes,” March 29, 1880.
Expanded: The disparity in the poll tax was partially remedied.
17. See, e.g., WJ, January 8, 1881, Stone, “Extravagant Housekeeping”; February 12, 1881, “Letter from Judge Russell.” Merk at 60.
18. WJ, March 25, 1882, “Debate in Massachusetts Senate.” Susan E. Marshall, Splintered Sisterhood: Gender and Class in the Campaign against Woman Suffrage (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997), 23-35.
Expanded: See also WJ, March 25, 1882, T. W. H. "Senator Crocker's Speech."
19. Kate Gannett Wells, An Argument Against Woman Suffrage, 1885. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/012476437
20. IV HWS 704; Woman Suffrage Yearbook 1917.
Expanded: The Yearbook reports the House votes as follows: 1884, 61-155; 1887, 86-122; 1888, 50-21.
21. See generally Lois Bannister Merk, “Boston’s Historic Public School Crisis,” New England Quarterly (June 1958); Edmund B. Thomas Jr., “School Suffrage and the Campaign for Women’s Suffrage in Massachusetts, 1879–1920,” Historical Journal of Massachusetts (Winter 1997); Polly Welts Kaufman, Boston Women and City School Politics, 1872–1905 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1994); WJ, December 24, 1888; January 5, 1889; October 6, 1888.
22. Thomas, “School Suffrage,” 13; Kaufman, Boston Women, 155. WJ, October 6, 1888, “Editorial Notes.”
23. Remonstrance, 1891; Marshall, Splintered Sisterhood, 87.
24. Stone v. Smith, 159 Mass 413 (1893).
Expanded: Several Bostonians founded the Immigration Restriction League, which favored the exclusion of illiterate immigrants. Lodge, Henry Cabot. The Restriction of Immigration. The North American Review Jan 1891 27-36. Massachusetts Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge, who would later become a United States Senator, became an important ally of the League.
25. WJ, March 18, 1893, Henry B. Blackwell, "The Massachusetts Victory Deferred.”
26. Ibid., October 21, 1893, Alice Stone Blackwell, “A Beautiful Death.”
Expanded: In this first issue after her mother’s death, Alice Stone Blackwell wrote “The Armenian Question.”
27. Woman Suffrage Yearbook, 1917; WJ, December 23, 1893, “Massachusetts Annual Meeting.”
28. Remonstrance, 1894, 1895; IV HWS 734.
29. WJ, March 16, 1895, Alice Stone Blackwell, “A Device of the Enemy”; June 8, 1895, Alice Stone Blackwell, “The Sham Referendum”; October 5, 1895, “Referendum State Committee”; James J. Kenneally, “Woman Suffrage and the Massachusetts Referendum of 1895,” The Historian (1968): 626.
30. WJ, October 5, 1895, Henry B. Blackwell, “Municipal Suffrage for Women.”
31. Remonstrance, 1896.
32. IV HWS 737–38.
Expanded: The secretary of the Man Suffrage Association was Charles R. Saunders, who lobbied legislators to oppose woman suffrage.
33. Kenneally, “Woman Suffrage,” 627.
34. Remonstrance, 1896.
35. WJ, November 9, 1895, Alice Stone Blackwell, “The Sham Referendum”; November 16, 1895, Henry B. Blackwell, “Suffrage Situation in Massachusetts.”
36. Maud Wood Park Papers, Pa-137, WRC-SL; Merk, “Massachusetts and the Woman Suffrage Movement,” 330.
37. See, e.g., Kenneally, “Woman Suffrage,” 632.
1. All congressional vote data are from govtrack.us/congress. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/49-2/s350
Expanded: The senators supporting the amendment were sprinkled across the northeastern, midwestern, and western states. The vote followed a favorable report from the Senate Select Committee on Woman Suffrage. IV HWS. The Senate established this Committee in 1882 at the urging of Senator Hoar of Massachusetts.
2. WJ, April 9, 1887, Henry B. Blackwell, “Victory Deferred in Rhode Island.”
3. Ibid., Nov 26, 1887, “Sunflower Badge for Suffrage.”
4. Jean Matthews, The Rise of the New Woman, 1875–1930 (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee), 127.
5. Suzanne Marilley, Woman Suffrage and the Origins of Liberal Feminism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 8.
Expanded: The General Federation of Women’s Clubs was founded in 1890. Though precise membership figures do not exist, it is estimated to have had over half a million members by 1906. Countless other women belonged to women’s associations that may not have been part of the organized women’s club movement. See, e.g., Sarah S. Platt Decker, “The Meaning of the Women’s Club Movement,” The Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Sept. 1906).
6. Tetrault, Myth of Seneca Falls, 145.
7. Remarks of Lucy Stone, Report of the International Council of Women, Washington, D.C., March 25–April 1, 1888. https://archive.org/stream/ofinternatreport00interich/ofinternatreport00interich_djvu.txt
8. Tetrault, Myth of Seneca Falls, 153.
9. Ibid., 163.
Expanded: Of Anthony’s ambitions to run the organization, Stone stated, “She so much wishes to be president herself! To bring her to the top at last would be such a vindication she cannot bear to forego it.” Tetrault, 162. Tetrault notes that Anthony strategically supported Stanton’s election and appealed to the Seneca Falls narrative, knowing full well that Stanton had no intention of actually heading NAWSA. Id., 163.
10. John T. Cumbler, From Abolition to Rights for All: The Making of a Reform Community in the Nineteenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008), 116.
11. WJ, November 3, 1894, ECS, “Educated Suffrage Justified.”
12. Ibid., September 27, 1890, Henry B. Blackwell “A Solution of the Southern Question.” See also Henry B. Blackwell, “Woman Suffrage in Kentucky,” WJ, April 27, 1889 and Henry B. Blackwell, “Educated Woman Suffrage in Mississippi,” April 26, 1890.
Expanded: Massachusetts was among the states that had a literacy requirement. In 1857, Article XX to the state constitution was adopted. It required that a voter be able to read the Constitution in English and write his name. Current voters and those over age 60 were exempted. In 1889, a new requirement subjected those who had not voted for four years to a literacy test. These literacy requirements remained on the books until the federal voting rights act was passed. See Massachusetts Constitution Article XX; Mass. G.L. c. 51, sec. 1; Keyssar, Right to Vote, 342.
13. WJ, December 22, 1894, Harriot Stanton Blatch, “An Open Letter to Mrs. Stanton.”
14. Aileen S. Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement: 1890–1920 (New York: W.W. Norton, 1981), 131.
15. Proceedings of the Twenty-eighth Annual Convention of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, Washington, D.C., January 1896. https://books.google.com/books?id=D38EAAAAYAAJ&q=avery#v=onepage&q=stanton&f=false
Expanded: Though many members of the National Council of Jewish Women supported woman suffrage, the Council itself did not endorse the movement. One reason may have been the mistrust some in the Jewish community felt toward the suffrage movement. Council leaders may have also wished to avoid this divisive issue.
16. Sarah Graham, Woman Suffrage and the New Democracy (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996), 52.
17. Ibid., 7.
18. WJ, February 24, 1900, Alice Stone Blackwell, “Washington Notes.”
19. See, e.g., Robert Booth Fowler, Carrie Catt: Feminist Politician (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986); Jacqueline Van Voris, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life (New York: Feminist Press, 1987).
20. Woman Suffrage Calendar, 1900. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000131005054;view=1up;seq=84
21. Graham, Woman Suffrage, 40, 47–48.
Expanded: Anthony was determined to control her legacy as much as possible. Following the completion of her authorized biography, written by Ida Husted Harper, Anthony’s sister, Mary, burned many of personal papers and correspondence in large fires described as lasting for more than a week. Stanton too destroyed some of her personal papers. See Tiffany Wayne, Women’s Rights in the United States: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Issues, Events, and People (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2015); Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Elizabeth Cady Stanton as Revealed in her Letters, Diaries, and Reminiscences, Volume 2 (1922).
22. Johnson, Joan Marie. “Following the Money: Wealthy Women, Feminism, and the American Suffrage Movement,” Journal of Women’s History (2015): 62–87.
23. Graham, Woman Suffrage, 23; V HWS 59–60.
Expanded: Graham states that there is little discussion about black suffrage in NAWSA’s papers and wonders if some of the information was readacted or never entered.
24. WJ, February 6, 1904, “Mrs. Catt’s Resignation.”
25. Anna Howard Shaw, Eulogy for Susan B. Anthony, March 15, 1906, http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/shaw.html; Valethia Watkins, “Votes for Women: Race, Gender, and W.E.B. Du Bois’s Advocacy of Woman Suffrage,” Phylon (Winter 2016): 3–19.
26. The Crisis, October 1911.
1. New tactics are the subject of the next chapter.
2. Statistics in this section are from the United States Census Bureau; Jack Tager, and Richard W. Wilke, eds., Historical Atlas of Massachusetts (Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1991), 34–39, 68, 82; Matthews, Rise of the New Woman, 11, 15, 49, 99; Rebecca Traister, All the Single Ladies: Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2016), 47; Carole Srole, “A Position that God has not Particularly Assigned to Men: The Feminization of Clerical Work, Boston, 1860–1915” (PhD diss., University of California Los Angeles, 1984); Karen J. Blair, The Clubwoman as Feminist: True Womanhood Redefined, 1868–1914 (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1980).
3. New York World, February 2, 1896, Nellie Bly, “Champion Of Her Sex: Miss Susan B. Anthony.” http://blog.rarenewspapers.com/?p=8411
4. Maud Wood Park Papers Pa-9, WRC-SL.
5. Maud Wood Park, “Who I Am and What I Believe,” MWP Papers, LOC, collected in Melanie Gustafson, “Maud Wood Park Archive: The Power of Organization, Part One: Maud Wood Park and the Woman Suffrage Movement,” part of Kathryn Kish Sklar and Thomas Dublin, eds., Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600–2000 (hereafter, Park in Gustafson).
6. Maud Wood Park Papers, Pa-9, Folder 002690-047-001, WRC-SL.
7. Patricia Marzzacco, “The Obligation of Opportunity: Maud Wood Park, The College Equal Suffrage League, and the Response of Women Students in Massachusetts Colleges, 1900–1920” (PhD diss., Harvard Univ., 2004), 84–85.
8. She was known as Inez Haynes Gillmore after her first marriage. Following divorce and remarriage, she used the name Inez Haynes Irwin, though often published as Inez Haynes Gillmore.
Expanded: I lacked the space to give attention to Irwin. She later became a successful author; her works included the Maida series written for young girls over a 45-year period. While Park became a NAWSA leader, Irwin became a member of the National Advisory Council of the NWP. In 1921, she wrote The Story of the Woman’s Party.
9. WJ, April 25, 1914; Maud Wood Park Papers, Folders Pa-9, Pa-175, Pa-137, 002690-047-0001, WRC-SL; Mary Hutcheson Page Papers, Folder 653-653b, WRC-SL.
Expanded: Julia Ward Howe and Mary Livermore were both 80 in 1900.
10. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folders Pa-9, Pa-175, Pa-137, 002690-047-0001, WRC-SL.
11. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 002690-047-0001, WRC-SL.
12. WJ, March 31, 1900, A.S.B., “College Women’s Suffrage League.”
13. Marzzacco, “Obligation of Opportunity,” 30.
14. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 137, WRC-SL.
15. Ibid. Park neither identifies nor discusses her woman doctor.
16. V HWS 171, 192–93.
17. Maud Wood Park, “An explanation as to why Bob and I were not publicly married is probably needed,” Park in Gustafson, Document 3. Park also explained that her plan for her round-the-world trip had been made before she promised to remarry.
18. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder Pa-175, WRC-SL.
19. James Kenneally, Women and American Trade Unions (Montreal: Eden Press, 1981), 18. The percentage of male industrialized workers who were unionized was similar, but the absolute number was far higher because of their greater participation in the workforce. The percentage of the male labor force composed of union members would grow tremendously during the next several decades. See also Susan Amsterdam, “The National Women's Trade Union League,” Social Service Review, Vol. 56, No. 2 (Jun., 1982)
20. Thomas Juravich, et al. Commonwealth of Toil: Chapters in the History of Massachusetts Workers and Their Unions (Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1996), 87–89.
21. V HWS 189–91.
Expanded: Despite efforts at sisterhood, class tensions existed within the WTUL too, and working women and privileged reformers frequently met separately in the early years. There was of course a stark difference between the real world experience of privileged reformers and wage earners.
22. Kenneally, Women and American Trade, 131; Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 164.
23. Mary Kenney, O’Sullivan, Why the Working Woman Needs the Vote. Ann Lewis Women's Suffrage Collection, 2017, https://lewissuffragecollection.omeka.net/items/show/1601.
24. Kenneally, Women and American Trade, 54; Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001), 70.
Expanded: In 1902, MWSA, aware of the need to make inroads in working-class communities, had sought to establish a committee to work among Catholics. But that effort had failed when the MWSA was unable to find Catholic women willing to join. Kenneally, supra.
25. Teresa Blue Holden, “Earnest Women Can Do Anything: The Public Career of Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin 1842–1904” (PhD diss., St. Louis University, 2005).
Expanded: As discussed earlier, the Ruffins were part of a network of educated, socially-active African-Americans.
26. Woman’s Era, March 1894. http://womenwriters.library.emory.edu/content.php?level=div&id=era1_01.06&document=era1
27. Ibid., March, June, July, November 1894.
28. Ibid., August 1895. http://www.blackpast.org/1895-josephine-st-pierre-ruffin-address-first-national-conference-colored-women#sthash.ZriYUeQq.dpuf
Expanded: Ruffin criticized lynching in 1893, in an article published by the Woman’s Journal on May 27, 1893, "A Protest against Barbarism."
Ruffin and the Woman’s Era Club left NACW in 1900, but Ruffin continued her activism. She continued to believe woman suffrage would benefit all races. In 1915, she wrote that “the success of this movement for equality of the sexes means more progress toward equality of the races.” The Crisis 1915 at 188. http://library.brown.edu/pdfs/128895937640750.pdf (The tension between Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell is beyond the scope of this brief entry.)
29. Graham, Woman Suffrage, 23–25. There were some exceptions during state campaigns, however. NAWSA’s policy might be described as courting white southerners but courting black northerners during individual state campaigns. See Terborg-Penn, African American Women, 92–105, 126.
Expanded: Terrell addressed NAWSA in 1898.Her speech concluded with these words: “Seeking no favors because of our color, nor patronage because of our needs, we knock at the bar of justice, asking an equal chance.” https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/murray:@field(DOCID+@lit(lcrbmrpt0a13div2)):
30. WJ, February 9, 1901, “Women’s Clubs and Club Women”; June 16, 1900, “Editorial Notes.”
1. Sharon Hartman Strom, “Leadership and Tactics in the American Woman Suffrage Movement: A New Perspective from Massachusetts,” Journal of American History 62 (September 1975): 300. See also Carrie Chapman Catt, “Why Suffrage Fight Took 50 Years,” NYT, June 15, 1919 (seed-sowing).
2. See, e.g., Holly McCammon, “Out of the Parlors and into the Streets: The Changing Tactical Repertoire of the U.S. Women’s Suffrage Movements,” Social Forces (March 2003): 787.
3. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 94, WRC-SL. BESAGG Introductory Note. See also First and Second Reports of the BESAGG, Folder 95.
Expanded: The BESAGG also became an auxiliary of the Massachusetts State Federation of Women’s Clubs.
4. Ibid., Folder 95, WRC-SL.
5. Emmeline Pankhurst, My Own Story (1914), 129. The English movement would later engage in a campaign that included window breaking and other forms of property damage. See also June Purvis and Sandra Stanley Holton, eds. Votes for Women. London: Routledge, 2000, 120-130. Strom also discusses the visit of two English suffragettes to Boston, Florence Luscomb, 130.
6. Ellen Carol DeBois, Woman Suffrage & Women’s Rights (New York: NYU Press, 1998), 195–99.
Expanded: The New York woman suffrage movement was in the forefront of experimenting with new tactics, although Harriot Stanton Blatch’s Equality League of Self-Supporting Women was largely comprised of working class women, as opposed to the BESAGG, which was largely composed of the middle and upper class women. Luscomb credits Massachusetts as being the first state to use open air activities. Luscomb, Folder 635.
7. WJ, September 19, 1908, Henry B. Blackwell, “Street Suffrage Meeting in Lynn.”
8. Florence Luscomb Papers, Folder 635. WRC-SL.
Expanded: In addition to Fitzgerald, the first open air campaigners were Teresa Crowley, Mary Ware Dennet, and Katharine Dexter. Rain delayed the first open-air attempt. BESAGG, Annual Report, 1910.
Susan Walker Fitzgerald was born in 1871 in Cambridge. She attended Bryn Mawr College where she founded the Student Government Association. She worked at a settlement house in New York from 1901 to 1904. She and her husband, attorney Richard Fitzgerald, lived in California from 1904 to 1906 and settled in Boston in 1907, where she raised four children. She became executive secretary of BESAGG in 1907.
Katharine Dexter McCormick graduated from MIT in 1904. She married Stanley Robert McCormick, the heir to a substantial fortune, who would later be diagnosed with what today is known as schizophrenia. McCormick became vice president and treasurer of NAWSA and was among its largest funders.
Mary Ware Dennett graduated from School of Art and Design in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts in 1891. She became field secretary of the MWSA in 1908, and Corresponding Secretary of NAWSA from 1910-1914. Starting in 1914, Dennett joined Margaret Sanger in the new birth control movement.
9. Ibid.; V HWS 276.
10. Florence Luscomb Papers, Folder 635, MC 394: Folder 212, WRC-SL.
11. Teresa O’Leary Crowley Papers, Folder 49, WRC-SL.
12. Jennie Loitman Barron, Jewish Women’s Archive; https://www.radcliffe.harvard.edu/schlesinger-library/blog/freedom-all
13. Margaret Foley Papers, Folder 3, WRC-SL.
14. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 95, WRC-SL.
Expanded: WJ, August 28 1909, “Massachusetts Meetings.” Fitzgerald, Mary Ware Dennett, Mrs. AP McClure, and Miss E.M. Haynes were in the first group. During the last two weeks, Katherine Tyng and Florence Luscomb replaced Dennett and McClure.
15. Florence Luscomb Papers, Folder 635, WRC-SL; WJ, August 28, 1909, “Massachusetts Meetings.”
16. WJ, August 28, 1909, “Massachusetts Meetings.”
17. Margaret Foley Papers, MC 404: Folder 55, WRC-SL.
18. WJ, August 28, 1909, Henry B. Blackwell, “Suffrage Meeting at Marble House.”
19. Ibid., October 30, 1909. See also WJ, December 26, 1908, Alice Stone Blackwell, “The Anti-Suffragettes.”
21. Graham, Woman Suffrage, 54.
22. WJ, April 30, 1910, “Rules for Open-Air Meetings.”
23. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 95, WRC-SL.
24. Historian Susan Ware, conversation with the author.
25. Virginia Scharff, Taking the Wheel: Women and the Coming of the Motor Age (New York: The Free Press, 1991), 79.
Expanded: As noted, a parade of decorated automobiles met Emmeline Pankhurst when she arrived in Boston. During the summer of 1910, the Woman’s Journal asked readers to contact the MWSA if they could loan a “friendly automobile” to join Boston’s Labor Day parade in September 1910 in order to advertise upcoming suffrage meetings. WJ, September 3, 1910, “A Suffrage Automobile.”
26. WJ, November 12, 1910, “State Correspondence”; Margaret Foley Papers, Folder 72, WRC-SL; Florence Luscomb Papers, MC 394: Folder 12, WRC-SL.
27. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 95, WRC-SL.
Expanded: This strategy had been piloted in New York.
29. Globe, May 17, 1910, “Ward 8 Women Organize and Elect a Ward Committee.”
30. Globe, March 12, 1911, “A Radcliffe Woman, She Moved to Ward 7.”
31. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 21, WRC-SL.
Expanded: In July 1910, the WJ absorbed NAWSA’s official publication Progress. NAWSA was able to provide limited managerial and financial support for two years. In 1912, the WJ renamed itself the WJ and Suffrage News. Maud Wood Park, "Alice Stone Blackwell, Supplementary Notes," December 1942, WRC 17-21, folder 21.
32. Globe, October 1, 1911, “Equal Suffrage Amateur Nights”; WJ, November 12, 1910, “Newsies’ Volunteer”; Florence Luscomb Papers, 394: Folder 212, WRC-SL.
33. WJ, February 26, 1910, “Massachusetts Men’s League for Woman Suffrage”; December 23, 1911, “Peabody Protests”; March 30, 1912, “National League Formed for Men”; October 5, 1912, “Men to Make Debut at NAWSA Convention”.
Expanded: Edwin D Mead was president of the Massachusetts Chapter. Modeled after the New York Men’s League, which was founded in 1908, the object of the Massachusetts Men’s League, reported the Woman’s Journal, “is to express approval of the movement of women to attain the full suffrage in this country, and to aid them in their efforts toward that end by public appearances in behalf of the cause, by the circulation of literature and the holding of meetings, and in such other ways as may from time to time seem desirable.” Massachusetts Men's League for Woman Suffrage, Boston: T. Todd, Printers, 1911. Woman's Journal, February 26, 1910, “Massachusetts Men's League for Woman Suffrage."
34. Muller v. Oregon, 208 U.S. 412 (1908); Louis Brandeis, Speech on Suffrage at Tremont Temple, October 12, 1915. . https://louisville.edu/law/library/special-collections/the-louis-d.-brandeis-collection/speech-on-suffrage-by-louis-d.-brandeis
“My own conversion to suffrage came through experience-through finding that in the public work in which I took part, the aid of women was not only most effective, but at times indispensable. We who believe in democracy are convinced that no class or section of the community is so wise or so just that it can safely be trusted to govern well other classes or sections. This is largely because of the limit of our understanding-our contracted vision.”
35. WJ, October 14, 1911, “California Wins! Suffragists Celebrate Victory”; Globe, October 13, 1911, “Women to Vote in California”; October 17, 1911, “Rejoice Over Their Triumph: Suffragist Jubilee at Faneuil Hall.”
36. Pankhurst, My Own Story, 171; Harvard Crimson, December 2, 1911, “Harvard Men’s League for Woman Suffrage”; December 7, 1911, Mrs. Pankhurst’s Lecture to be Given in Brattle Hall this Afternoon at 4:30 o’clock”; WJ, December 9, 1911, “Harvard Men Hear Mrs. Pankhurst”.
37. Johnson, Following the Money, 67.
38. Florence Luscomb Papers, Folder 635, MC: 394, Folder 212, WRC-SL.
Expanded: Luscomb alone spoke 30 times in Ohio in 19 days. Ohio newspapers extensively covered Foley’s appearances. Foley Folder 64. Mary Hutcheson Page was also a key participant in Ohio’s campaign.
The other states represented by the Remonstrance were Maine, Rhode Island, New York, Illinois, Oregon, and Washington. Katherine Conway led the paper from 1905 -1908, but she was not credited in the masthead. Conway supported women’s education but believed that the ballot would divert women from their proper role. Anti-suffragists made the same arguments as in the past, but also new ones tailored to the times. They claimed that suffrage was a radical movement that posed the same threat to the American way of life as anarchism, socialism, and other dangerous “isms.”
39. Globe, October 15, 1911, “Suffragettes Say Speaking Tour has Helped Their Cause.”
Expanded: Massachusetts elected governors annually until 1918. Terms were then two years until 1966 when they were lengthened to four years.
40. Foss was not a typical Democrat. He was a former Republican who broke with the party over tariffs.
1 NYT, August 31, 1912.
Expanded: Some in NAWSA objected to the role played by suffragists in Roosevelt’s campaign, claiming that it violated the organization’s commitment to being nonpartisan. In November 1912, NAWSA upheld the rule prohibiting its officers and members to affiliate with any political party. NYT, November 27, 1912, “Party Politics and the Women.”
2. V HWS 708.
Expanded: In Massachusetts, 61 percent of the state’s voters favored Taft or Roosevelt, but Wilson won the electoral votes with his 35 percent plurality.
3. Inez Hayes Irwin, The Story of the Woman’s Party (1921), 4.
4. Adapted from Laurel Thatcher Ulrich’s comment that well-behaved women seldom make history.
Expanded: Paul and Burns modeled their parade on marches and pageants held by the WSPU; they also looked to New York where Harriot Stanton Blatch, the daughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and another veteran of the WSPU, had organized suffrage parades.
5. WJ, March 8, 1913.
Expanded: Ultimately, Secretary of War Henry Stimson ordered federal cavalry to restore order.
6. Remembering the Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913, LOC.
7. Suffragist, December 6, 1913.
8. WJ, June 19, 1915, Alice Stone Blackwell, “Two National Programs: An Unpractical Policy.”
9. Flexner, Century of Struggle, 262, 376.
Expanded Info: Connecticut and Vermont were the only other states with two Republican senators opposed. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes. One of the Massachusetts Congressmen voting “no,” Republican Frederick Gillett, would become Speaker of the U.S. House in 1919.
10. V HWS 315.
11. Globe, January 29, 1913.
Expanded: There was also international progress. In addition to New Zealand, which was the first to enfranchise women, women could vote in Australia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, and Norway by 1915
12. Margaret Foley Papers, Folder 72, WRC-SL.
1. Florence Luscomb Papers, MC 393: Folder 212, WRC-SL.
2. Woman Suffrage Yearbook 1917.
3. Due to differences of opinion that developed in the last year of the campaign, Park withdrew from the Big Four and concentrated her efforts on Suffolk County. Park, Folder 94, WRC-SL.
4. Mary Hutcheson Page Papers, Folder 23, WRC-SL.
5. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 148, WRC-SL; Globe, May 3, 1914.
Expanded: In 1914, only Mt. Holyoke students formed a school delegation. In 1915, college marchers generally represented their schools. Marcazzo, 188.
6. Maud Wood Park Papers, Folder 148, WRC-SL; Globe, May 3, 1914; Luscomb, MC 394: Folder 212, WRC-SL.
7. VI HWS 284.
8. Graham, Woman Suffrage, 63, 67. Graham cites the BESAGG minutes from October 8, 1915 and the memoirs of Zara Dupont.
Expanded: Rosa Marie Finocchietti Levis, a member of Boston's Italian community in the North End, did join the suffrage movement. Born in 1878 to parents who had emigrated from Genoa, Italy, the Finocchietti family lived on Hull Street. In 1897, she married sculptor Albert Warren Levis, who had emigrated from Florence, Italy. Beginning in 1910, and while raising six children, Levis became an advocate for woman suffrage. She claimed to be the first Italian-American suffragist in Massachusetts. The family moved to Dorchester in 1914. During WWI, Levis participated "with other suffragists, in the sale of Liberty Bonds, and in programs for food conservation and for Americanization of Italian immigrants. In addition, she worked with Boston Italians rolling bandages and assembling supply kits for Italian-American soldiers." Biography, from the Finding Aid, Papers of Rosa Marie Finocchietti Levis, SL.
9. Globe, June 26, 1915, “Women’s Clubs for Suffrage”; VI HWS 286l Florence Seaver Slocomb Papers, Box 1, Folder 13, SSC-SC.
Expanded: Suffrage won the vote, 203 – 99. Mrs. James M Codman, the president of the antis, issued a statement claiming that the convention had been “packed” with suffrage supporters. Globe, June 26, 1915, “Women’s Clubs for Suffrage.” Elated supporters hoped that many women’s club members would persuade their husbands and sons to support the referenda.
10. Susan Ware, Partner and I: Molly Dewson, Feminism, and New Deal Politics (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989), 68.
11. Florence Luscomb Papers, Folder 635, WRC-SL; Globe, October 25, 1915, “Wage Women’s Wedge to be in Worcester.”
12. Globe, October 10, 1915, “Lucy’s Stone Carriage”; October 21, 1915, “Suffrage Tour Today”; Worcester Evening Post, October 23, 1915; VI HWS 285.
13. Racism was very much on the minds of Boston’s blacks in 1915. When D.W. Griffith’s film Birth of a Nation opened in Boston in April, the city’s black community protested against the film.
14. The Crisis, August 1915.
15. Melissa R. Klapper, Ballots, Babies, Banners of Peace: American Jewish Women’s Activism, 1890–1940 (New York: NYU Press, 2013), 33–34.
16. Ibid., 28, citing Framingham News, July 19, 1915.
17. Catholic for Suffrage leaflets, Suffrage Collection, Box 2, Folder 1, SSC-SC.
18. Globe, July 8, 1915; July 11, 1915, “Suffrage Bluebird Day”; August 11, 1915, “Will have Ball at Revere”; Foley Folder 63, WRC-SL.
Expanded: The Massachusetts suffrage movement even had an official song. In 1914, MWSA officially adopted the Suffrage Marching Song with words by Florence Livington Lent and music by Fanny Connable Lancaster. Danny O Crew, Suffragist Sheet Music: An Illustrated Catalogue of Published Music, 332.
19. Globe, September 18, 1915, “Back from New Jersey”; October 27, 1915, “Dr. Shaw Brockton”; October 29, 1915, “For Suffrage in Gloucester”; October 31, 1915, “Reverend Dr. Shaw Heard in Tremont Temple.”
20. Ibid., October 3, 1915, “Suffragists to have Great Parade”; October 24, 1915, “200,000 Watch Women’s Parade”; Worcester Evening Post, October 30, 1915.
21. Flier, Torchlight Suffrage March and Mass Meeting, Worcester, Massachusetts, Ann Lewis Women’s Suffrage Collection, http://lewissuffragecollection.omeka.net/items/show/1468.
22. NYT, February 6, 1915, “It Must Be Defeated.”
23. Remonstrance, October 1915; Boston Journal, October 30, 1915, Tail Wagging the Dog”; Florence Seaver Slocomb Papers, Box 1, Folder 1, SSC-SC.
24. Globe, September 24, 1915, “Antisuffragists Plan a Tour of Whole State: First Week’s Trip in Middlesex, Essex, and Suffolk Counties.”
25. Globe, October 20, 1915, “Debate Ballot for the Women.”
26. Park Folder 94, WRC-SL; VI HWS 287–88.
27. WJ, November 6, 1915, “Million Votes Cast for Women in First Eastern Campaign.”
Expanded: Suffrage won 35.5 per cent of the vote in Massachusetts. Woman suffrage fared better in the other states winning 42 percent of the votes cast in New Jersey, 42.5 percent in New York, and 46 percent in Pennsylvania. Massachusetts voters also defeated Governor Walsh and replaced him with Republican Samuel McCall.
28. Park, Folder 94, WRC-SL.
29. WJ, November 13, 1915, “Bay State Starts Again.”
1. For the five percent figure, see, e.g., Nancy F. Cott, “Historical Perspectives: The Equal Rights Amendment Conflict in the 1920s,” in Conflicts in Feminism, edited by Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller (New York: Routledge, 1990), 44-59.
2. Johnson, Following the Money, 76–79.
3. Christine Stansell uses the mother-daughter analogy in The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present (New York: Random House, 2010).
4. V HWS 460–61.
6. Flexner, Century of Struggle, 267. See also Van Voris, Carrie Chapman Catt, 132.
7. J.D. Zahniser, and Amelia R. Fry, Alice Paul: Claiming Power (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 234.
8. Ibid., 218; see Suffragist, November 14, 1914, “National Suffrage and the Race Problem.”
9. NYT, September 9, 1916, “Wilson Pledges his Aid to Women in Fight for Vote.”
10. Carrie Chapman Catt and Nettie Rogers Shuler, Woman Suffrage and Politics: The Inner Story of the Suffrage Movement (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1926), 262–63. There is no surviving list of the states that endorsed the Winning Plan.
11. Maud Wood Park, Front Door Lobby (Boston: Beacon Press, 1960), 17.
Expanded: Despite southern resistance to a federal amendment, the Woman’s Journal paid for Margaret Foley to spend several months in southern states campaigning for suffrage. She visited Maryland, Virginia, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee. Foley, Folder 63, 64
12. Ibid., 25.
13. Catt and Shuler, Woman Suffrage, 266–67; V HWS 171.
14. WJ, June 2, 1917, “The Woman Citizen.”
Expanded: Woman Voter, founded in 1910 by the Woman Suffrage Party of New York City, and the National Suffrage News, founded in 1915 as the official newsletter of NAWSA, were merged into the new publication. See Agnes E. Ryan, The Torch Bearer; a Look Forward and Back at the Woman's Journal, the Organ of the Woman's Movement (1916).
15. Park, Front Door Lobby, 23.
16. V HWS 723.
17. WJ, November 17, 1917, “Suffrage Summary.”
18. WJ, June 2, 1917, Maud Wood Park, “The Congressional Situation”; November 10, 1917, “John Hay, Mrs. Catt, and Patriotism”; November 17, 1917, “Suffrage Summary.”
19. Ibid., June 30, 1917, “The Picket and the Public.”
Expanded: At the time of their release, Malone’s appeal of their convictions was before the District of Columbia Court of Appeals. In March 1918, the court ruled that the suffragists had been “illegally arrested, illegally convicted, and illegally imprisoned, but did not address the night of terror. Catherine J. Lanctot, Villanova University School of Law School of Law Working Paper Series Year 2008, “We Are At War And You Should Not Bother The President: The Suffrage Pickets and Freedom of Speech During World War I.” http://digitalcommons.law.villanova.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1120&context=wps
20. See, e.g., Susan Goodier, and Karen Postorello, Women Will Vote: Winning Suffrage in New York State. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2017).
21. Michigan, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Indiana were the others. Ohio did as well, but the grant was quickly revoked.
22. WJ, November 10, 1917, Ad, “As a War Measure”; V HWS 525.
23. WJ, January 19, 1918, “The Story of January Tenth”; “How the House Voted.”
24. Park, Front Door Lobby, 157.
25. Maud Wood Park to Robert Freeman Hunter, March 24, 1918 and April 26, 1918, Park in Gustafson, Documents 35 and 36.
26. WJ, October 5, 1918, “President Wilson Calls Suffrage Vital Aid to Victory.”
27. Ibid., October 19, 1918, Martha White, “Go Farther!”
28. VI HWS 300; Grace Allen Johnson Papers, MC 193, Folder 175, WRC-SL. See also Blanche Ames Papers, Folder 2.
Expanded: The Committee members were Alice Stone Blackwell, Teresa A. Crowley, Mabel Gillespie, Grace Allen Johnson, Mary Agnes Mahan, Florence T. Perkins, Wenona Osborne Pinkham and Martha Silverman. Consistent with NAWSA’s philosophy, the campaign was carefully non-partisan. Members also aimed to unseat a Democratic congressman who opposed suffrage.
29. Teresa Crowley Papers, Folder 49. Luscomb MC 394: Folder 212, WRC-SL.
30. WJ, November 9, 1918, Carrie Chapman Catt, “What NAWSA Has Done.”
31. Park, Front Door Lobby, 233
32. Globe, February 25, 1919, “19 Suffragettes Spend Night in Jail.” See generally Anita C. Danker, “Grassroots Suffragists: Josephine Collins and Louise Mayo, A Study in Contrasts,” New England Journal of History (Spring 2011): 54–72.
33. Globe, February 25, 1919, “19 Suffragettes Spend Night in Jail”; February 27, 1919, “Three ‘Suffs’ are Forced to Quit Jail, Violently Protesting.”
34. Ibid., February 24, 1919, “Wilsons Receive Women’s Delegation”; March 11, 1919, “12,000,000 Women May Vote for President.”
Expanded: In 1918, Britain enfranchised women over 30 who met certain property qualifications or held a university degree. It enfranchised all women age 21 or older in 1928.
35. Florence Luscomb Papers, MC 394: Folder 212, WRC-SL.
36. Globe, June 13, 1919, “Argue Ratification of Woman Suffrage”; Margaret Foley, MC 404: Folder 73, WRC-SL.
37. Globe, June 13, 1919, “Argue Ratification for Woman Suffrage”; WJ, July 5, 1919, Alice Stone Blackwell, “Triumph in Massachusetts.”
38. WJ, August 28, 1920, “When the News Came Home”; September 23, 1920, “Bay State Suffragists Have Victory Parade”; NYT, August 27, 1920, “Colby Proclaims Woman Suffrage.”
39. WJ, September 6, 1919, “Mrs. Maud Wood Park to Lecture on Reconstruction”; Globe, September 23, 1920, “Victory Dinner Ends Celebration”; Florence Luscomb Papers, MC 393: Folder 212, WRC-SL.